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Don’t Fall for a Pyramid Scheme!

Don't Fall for a Pyramid Scheme!

What is Pyramid Schemes?
Pyramid Schemes are classified as deceitful and fraudulent endeavors that are undertaken in order to benefit those responsible for its operation, while scamming a multitude of participants involved. Eponymously, Pyramid Schemes are aptly named after a pyramid. The shape of the pyramid illustrates both the hierarchy and profitability of Pyramid Schemes: the select few at the ‘top’ of Pyramid Schemes enjoy the benefits, while those at the ‘bottom’ of the pyramid typically sustain a variety of losses and trickery.
Pyramid Schemes vs. Ponzi Schemes
Although these two schemes share a variety of similarities, their inherent constructs differentiate the two in methodology and structure:
Pyramid Schemes require participants lower in the hierarchy to solicit new participants, which subsequently exist below them with respect to the hierarchical structuring. As new participants are solicited, the revenue generated from them gets filtered upwards towards the ‘top’ of the pyramid, which results from the promise of financial gain in return for successful solicitation. 
Ponzi Schemes involve monies, assets, or items from new participants to be allotted to preexisting participants under the guise of returns from profitable investments. Yet, the creators of Ponzi schemes simply satisfy preexisting debts with other debt. While the preexisting investors are deceived into trusting their investments, the newer participants are unknowingly responsible for the satisfaction of the replenishment of monies initially stolen from preexisting participants by the creators of the scheme.
Pyramid Schemes Offense Profile
Legal Jurisdiction: Criminal Law, Consumer Law, Investment Law, Finance Law, Commercial Law, Business Law
Type of Crime: Misdemeanor or Felony – varies upon the nature of the crime 
Criminal Code: Varies upon the location of the crime, including the applicable country, nation, state, or province
Range of Punishment(s): Fines, probation, associated penalties, or incarceration – varies upon case details 
Duration of Punishment(s): Varies upon case details
Applicable Punishment(s): Varies upon individual intent, criminal record, criminal history, and the victim(s) involved. While certain Pyramid Schemes never get off of the ground, others can be responsible for the theft of millions of dollars. Upon the conviction involving Pyramid Schemes, the creators can be required to repay all monies, assets, and items stolen from unknowing participants.
Pyramid Schemes Allegations: Terminology and Associated Offenses  
The following are commonly associated with charges of Pyramid Schemes: 
Scam: Fraudulent, criminal activity utilizing misrepresentation and promises of immediate and oftentimes unrealistic returns.
Scheme: A deceitful, unethical, and illegal system or methodology constructed by illegal means in order to benefit its creators and cheat its participants.
White Collar Crime: Crimes that are typically non-violent in nature. White collar crimes usually involve financial crimes and fraudulent investments targeted towards individuals with higher social, financial, and economical statuses.
Financial Fraud: The act of purposefully defrauding individuals by misrepresenting the return(s), conditions, and statuses of investment opportunities.
Misrepresentation: Falsely reporting or describing a product or service. In contrast to a fraud charge, misrepresentation does not always consist of the intent to deliberately misrepresent.
The Preparation of a Pyramid Schemes Defense
In the event that an individual has been arrested on a Pyramid Schemes charge, they are encouraged to observe the behavioral protocol of the arrest process. Individuals are encouraged to consult with attorneys specializing in criminal law and, if possible, those who focus on Pyramid Schemes, Fraud, and Finance Law.

What are Probation?

What are Probation?

What is Probation?

Probation is a legal institution that can be utilized in lieu of a prison sentence. Although probation is not always granted and is dependent on a number of factors, including the nature of the crime and past criminal records, it is considered to be a more favorable alternative to incarceration. The details of probation typically include a trial period in which an individual convicted of a crime gains the opportunity to display that they are able to maintain legal and lawful decorum in the setting of the general public.

What is Probation Violation?
Probation Violation is the act of failing to adhere to parameters set forth in the institution of probation on the part of an individual who was convicted of a crime. Probation Violation can depend on the nature of the details of the probation imposed, and as a result, it is difficult to classify a uniform or standard example of the violation of probation. However, the following are some examples of Probation Violation:
The failure to report to scheduled meeting(s) with a probation officer
The act of committing a crime in the realm of a probationary period
The failure to participate in the instated legal restitution latent within a probationary period, such as the satisfaction of fines, participation in drug screening, or participation in illegal activity
In convictions that involve specific offenses, such as guns or drugs, an individual on probation will be prohibited from possessing or using such things. In the event that an individual is caught in possession of prohibited items, that is classified as a probation violation.

Probation Violation Offense Profile

Legal Jurisdiction: Criminal Law, Administrative Law, Trial Law
Type of Crime: Misdemeanor or Felony – Varied
Criminal Code: Varies upon the location of the crime, including the applicable country, nation, state, or province
Range of Punishment(s): Typically, Probation Violation results in incarceration
Duration of Punishment(s): Varies upon case details
Applicable Punishment(s): Varies upon individual intent, criminal record, criminal history, and the victim(s) involved. In many cases, a probation violation will result in the concurrent incarceration with regard to the sentencing applicable to the original conviction.

Probation Violation Allegations: Terminology and Associated Offenses  

The following are commonly associated with charges of Probation Violation: 
Conditions of Probation: The permissible activity and behavior required by the individual on probation. Failure of adherence to these conditions results in probation violation.
Probation Period: The duration of the probation in question.
Probation Officer: The legal caseworker in charge of the administration, monitoring, and regulation of a probation term.
The Probation Violation Arrest Process
In the event that the prospect exists in which an individual is at risk for or has been arrested as a result of a Probation Violation charge, it is of the utmost importance that they are aware and mindful of the basic legality associated with the criminal justice system. Individuals who have been served documentation in the form of an arrest warrant displaying a Probation Violation, or have been arrested by law enforcement, are encouraged to cooperate with the arresting officers regardless of personal belief with regard to the charges. Individuals under arrest will be given the opportunity to consult with legal specialists subsequent to the arrest process. Resisting or fleeing from a Probation Violation arrest can result in harm, injury, and additional penalties. Upon arrest, an individual should be made aware of the following in order to prevent any further complication(s):
Due Process with regard to a Probation Violation Charge
Habeas Corpus with regard to a Probation Violation Charge
The Presumption of Innocence
Miranda Rights:
The right to remain silent
The right for any words spoken during the arrest to be admissible during a trial
The right to consult with an attorney regardless of financial stature
The acknowledgement that the individual arrested for the Probation Violation charge understands the aforementioned rights.
 
The Preparation of a Probation Violation Defense


In the event that an individual has been arrested on a Probation Violation charge, they are encouraged to observe the behavioral protocol of the arrest process. Individuals are encouraged to consult with attorneys specializing in criminal law and, if possible, those who focus on Probation Violation legality. In the construction of a defense, the individual may be asked to provide the following:
The nature of Probation Violation in question
The detailed report of the original conviction in question
Any previous arrests and/or convictions
Evidence and witness testimony
A detailed account of the details surrounding the event in question
The inclusion of the name(s) of individuals involved
The arrangement for bail or bond.

Public Intoxication Defenses

Public Intoxication Defenses

What is Public Intoxication?

Public Intoxication is defined as the act of being inebriated, also known as ‘drunk’ or intoxicated, within a public setting. Within a charge of Public Intoxication, many factors can exist that further classify specific activities latent in any alcohol-related charge, such as the illegal sale of alcohol to a minor or driving under the influence of alcohol. While crimes of this nature can be classified as Public Intoxication, the traditional charge of Public Intoxication commonly includes public drunkenness in a forum neither suited nor designated for the consumption of alcohol.
Drinking Establishments and Public Intoxication
Patrons of legal and lawful establishments that permit the consumption of alcohol on their  premises doing so in a legal and lawful fashion may not be subject to Public Intoxication charges in the event that they adhere to any and all established guidelines. The removal of alcohol or presentation of a drunken state outside of the boundaries of such an establishment can result in a Public Intoxication charge. 
Public Setting vs. Private Setting
A public setting is classified as any setting which individuals of all ages inhabit that comply with legal statutes of accepted morality and proper behavior. This differs by locale and applicable legislation. A private setting is defined as a personal and private forum in which an individual is free to act according to their respective discretion with regard to legal or lawful behavior. Public Indecency is defined as the presumed immoral, unethical, objectionable, or offensive behavior displayed in a public setting.

Public Intoxication Offense Profile
1.       Legal Jurisdiction: Criminal Law, Child Law, and Family Law
2.       Type of Crime: Typically, this is a Misdemeanor 
3.       Criminal Code: Varies upon the location of the crime, including the applicable country, nation, state, or province
4.       Range of Punishment(s): Fines, probation, associated penalties, or temporary incarceration – varies upon case details 
5.       Duration of Punishment(s): Varies upon case details
6.       Applicable Punishment(s): Varies upon individual intent, criminal record, criminal history, and the 
victim(s) involved. In cases in which an individual is apprehended for Public Intoxication, they may be subject to temporary incarceration in a holding cell in a local or State facility until the individual in question is no longer considered to be intoxicated. Subsequent charges and trials may follow the release.


The Preparation of a Public Intoxication Defense
In the event that an individual has been arrested on a Public Intoxication charge, they are encouraged to observe the behavioral protocol of the arrest process. Individuals are encouraged to consult with attorneys specializing in criminal law and, if possible, those who focus on Public Intoxication legality. In the construction of a defense, the individual may be asked to provide the following:
•    The nature of the Public Intoxication charge in question
•    The event in which the alleged public intoxication took place
•    Any previous arrests and/or convictions
•    Evidence and witness testimony
•    A detailed account of the details surrounding the event in question
•    The inclusion of the name(s) of individuals involved
•    The arrangement for bail or bond.

An Overview of an Inmate Going Up For Parole

An Overview of an Inmate Going Up For Parole

The term parole, depending on the field of law and the specific judiciary system, will possess different meanings. In most circumstances, parole refers to the procedure where an inmate who has served a defined amount of time in prison continues his sentence outside of the correctional facility. 
In the typical criminal justice system, parole refers to the supervised release of an inmate before the completion of their sentence in prison. The parole is essentially a time of evaluation. If the prisoner engages in good behavior while in jail, he or she will be up for parole. During this time, the parolee’s actions while in prison will be reviewed in front of a board of law enforcement agents. 
If accepted, the parolee will be able to leave the prison and serve his or her remaining sentence outside of the correctional facility. While serving outside of jail, the individual on parole must obey the law, refrain from drug and alcohol use, obtain employment, and maintain contact with his or her parole officer. 

The 6 Objectives of Criminal Law

The 6 Objectives of Criminal Law

Criminal law is the law which deals with crimes and the punishments that may pertain to the crime committed. Often, criminal law is considered penal law. Criminal punishments that pertain to criminal law include: parole, probation, fines, jail time, or even execution. Criminal law is enforced, regulated, and created by the Government.  Criminal law includes punishment for criminal acts such as: murder, homicide, assault, battery, rape, sexual abuse, theft, fraud, and conspiracy acts.
1) Criminal law instills five objectives through criminal punishment. These objectives include:
2) Retribution, meaning the criminal should pay the consequences; 
3) Deterrence, meaning the criminal will not commit the act again;  
4) Incapacitation, or keeping the criminal away from society; 
5) Rehabilitation, or the transformation of the criminal so that they are fit for society; and 
6) Restitution, meaning to repair any victims of the criminal act.  
When a person is being charged with an act that is illegal as per criminal law, the court must prove actus reus, or the guilty act, and mens rea, which is the guilty mind. 

Does Male Teen Prostitution Exist?

Does Male Teen Prostitution Exist?

A male prostitute is any person that engages in sexual acts or services in exchange for money. Like all prostitution, a male prostitute is considered to be a job that is against the law in the United States. However, one the main concerns in this particular type of prostitution is male teen prostitution. Though it is not as commonly known, it does occur, particularly in foreign countries.
Not much is known about male teen prostitution largely due to the fact that it is not as researched as other forms of prostitution. However, male teen prostitution may prove to occur in parts of the world where certain laws are not necessarily enforced.
In the United States, prostitution is allowed in certain parts of Nevada. However, because legislation requires a cervical exam, a male prostitute is, in essence, not allowed to engage in the practice. Therefore, male teen prostitution is also illegal and will also be considered to be a form of child sexual abuse if the teen male prostitute is under the age of 18. Therefore, the punishment levied by law can range from fines or imprisonment, though such forms of punishment will be more severe in the case of male teen prostitution. 

Read Here for the Penalties For Stealing

Read Here for the Penalties For Stealing

If a person gets caught stealing, the penalties can vary. Stealing is a seen as a criminal act, and therefore depending on the circumstances, jail time can be given. Generally speaking, for first time offenders who steal something of minimal value, typically under $25, they will be asked to return the item(s) and not be allowed to reenter the store from which they stole. 
If a person is caught stealing multiple times or higher priced items, punishment can include: community service, jail time, and/or fines. If a person is caught stealing from an individual’s private home, they may be subjected to the same punishments. If a person is caught stealing, they will typically be arrested and released on bail. Stealing is mostly seen as a juvenile act. However, these incidents often can escalate into robbery or thefts, which are much serious charges. 

3 Types of Insurance Fraud

3 Types of Insurance Fraud

What is Insurance Fraud?

Insurance Fraud involves the submission of fraudulent insurance claims in order to gain monies or property. The methodology employed by fraudulent insurance claims can utilize either fabrication or exaggeration in their respective nature. The intention to defraud the insurance company is the focus of this type of crime.
While the prospect exists that an insurance claim can be reported in a fallacious nature absent of the intention to commit fraud, Insurance Fraud investigations maintain a rigorous and thorough process and procedure that is utilized to not only determine the validity of any and all insurance claims, but also to study patterns and trends latent within insurance claims with the hopes of apprehending individuals attempting to commit acts of Insurance Fraud.
Types of Insurance Fraud
The following are the most common types of Insurance Fraud:
1.    Health Insurance Fraud is considered to be the submission of a fraudulent insurance claim with regard to the health, wellness, or medical malady attributed to an individual. Health Insurance Fraud can take place within the following methods:
•    Exaggerated or fabricated injuries reported to an insurance company
•    Falsified medical documents, which can include medical reports or medical bills reported to the insurance company
•    Falsification of the events that had taken place resulting in an injury, which are reported to the insurance company.
2.    Life Insurance Fraud is the attempt to collect on a life insurance policy as a result of spurious, illegal, and unlawful intention. Life Insurance Fraud can consist of the following:
•    The falsification of death records or death notices reported to the insurance company
•    The murder of an individual in order to collect the life insurance policy belonging to them
•    Fallaciously marrying an elderly individual or an individual at a high risk for death in the attempt to collect their life insurance policy.
3.    Government or Administrative Insurance Fraud is the intentional defrauding of the Federal Government in order to receive payments in the form of monetary grants, loans, or assistance. This can include the following:
•    The submission of fraudulent financial reports in order to collect welfare or government assistance
•    The submission of fraudulent employment claims in order to unlawfully receive unemployment benefits
•    The submission of fallacious reports of pregnancy in order to unlawfully receive maternity benefits
•    The submission of fraudulent claims with regard to an injury sustained in order to unlawfully collect worker’s compensation.
Arrest Process for Insurance Fraud
Individuals who have been served documentation in the form of an arrest warrant displaying an Insurance Fraud charge, or have already been arrested by law enforcement agents, are encouraged to cooperate with the arresting officers regardless of personal belief with regard to the charges. Individuals under arrest will be given the opportunity to consult with legal specialists subsequent to the arrest process. Resisting or fleeing from an Insurance Fraud arrest can result in harm, injury, and additional penalties. Upon arrest, an individual should be made aware of the following in order to prevent any further complication(s):
•    Habeas Corpus
•    Due Process
•    The Presumption of Innocence.
Upon the arrest for an Insurance Fraud charge, this is the standard arrest protocol that must be upheld by any and all arresting officers. Miranda Rights include the Fifth Amendment, which states that an individual retains the right to remain silent in order to avoid incriminating themselves. This is also known as ‘pleading the Fifth’. In addition, Miranda Rights also guarantee the following rights with regard to an arrest:
a.       The right to remain silent
b.      The right for any words spoken during the arrest to be admissible during a trial
c.       The right to consult with an attorney regardless of financial stature
d.      The acknowledgement that the individual arrested for the Insurance Fraud charge understands the aforementioned rights.
 
The Preparation of an Insurance Fraud Defense
Individuals are encouraged to consult with attorneys specializing in criminal law and, if possible, those who focus on Insurance Fraud legality, criminal law, and defense. In the construction of a defense, the individual may be asked to provide the nature of the Insurance Fraud in question, any included threats, the biographical information with regard to any and all victims, any previous arrests and/or convictions, evidence and witness testimony, full account of the details surrounding the event in question, and the arrangement for bail or bond.

Kidnapping Arrest Process Explained

Kidnapping Arrest Process Explained

Kidnapping is defined as the illegal act of the abduction of an unwilling or unknowing individual at the hands of another individual or entity. In contrast to any eponymous implication, kidnapping is not specific to children or minors. Individuals considered to be of legal adult age can be subject to kidnapping as well. However, a variety of kidnapping charges exist within the scope of the illegal and unlawful act of kidnapping. Within each are various natures of punitive recourse and severity.

Types of Kidnapping
The following are the most common types of kidnapping charges:
•    Parental kidnapping occurs in the event that a parent illegally or unlawfully seizes a child residing in the legal custodianship or guardianship of another parent. Although the kidnapping takes place with regard to a biological parent, the penalties for such an act can retain analogous punishment as standard kidnapping charges.
•    Ransoming is defined as a type of kidnapping that entails the unlawful confinement of an individual or individuals with the hopes of exploitation, personal gain, or obtaining of monies or goods.
•    Human Trafficking is a type of kidnapping that involves the unwilling abduction of an individual or individuals with the hope of garnering a profit through the illegal sale of the kidnapped individuals. Human trafficking can result in human slavery, child prostitution, or other additional avenues of human exploitation.
Kidnapping vs. Abduction
Although situations exist in which kidnapping and abduction can be used interchangeably, the primary difference that is latent within the distinction between the two terms is the notion of willingness to be taken on the part of the victim. The seizing of children, minors, or other individuals that are considered unable to legally consent to such a decision is a crime. In the event that a child or minor agrees to be taken illegally by a kidnapping suspect, the charge is considered to be abduction. 
Arrest Process for Kidnapping
Individuals who have been served documentation in the form of an arrest warrant displaying a Kidnapping charge, or have already been arrested by law enforcement agents, are encouraged to cooperate with the arresting officers regardless of personal belief with regard to the charges. Individuals under arrest will be given the opportunity to consult with legal specialists subsequent to the arrest process. Resisting or fleeing from a Kidnapping arrest can result in harm, injury, and additional penalties. Upon arrest, an individual should be made aware of the following in order to prevent any further complication(s):
•    Habeas Corpus
•    Due Process
•    The Presumption of Innocence.
Upon the arrest for a Kidnapping charge, this is the standard arrest protocol that must be upheld by any and all arresting officers. Miranda Rights include the Fifth Amendment, which states that an individual retains the right to remain silent in order to avoid incriminating themselves. This is also known as ‘pleading the Fifth’. In addition, Miranda Rights also guarantee the following rights with regard to an arrest:
a.       The right to remain silent
b.      The right for any words spoken during the arrest to be admissible during a trial
c.       The right to consult with an attorney regardless of financial stature
d.      The acknowledgement that the individual arrested for the Kidnapping charge understands the 
aforementioned rights.
 
The Preparation of a Kidnapping Defense
Individuals are encouraged to consult with attorneys specializing in criminal law and, if possible, those who focus on Kidnapping legality, criminal law, and defense. In the construction of a defense, the individual may be asked to provide the nature of the Kidnapping in question, any included threats, the biographical information with regard to any and all victims, any previous arrests and/or convictions, evidence and witness testimony, full account of the details surrounding the event in question, and the arrangement for bail or bond

4 Methods of Money Laundering

4 Methods of Money Laundering

What is Money Laundering?
Money Laundering is classified as a financially-based criminal act that is employed in order to purposely conceal, misrepresent, and disguise all applicable nature or details with regard to financial income in the form of monies. Money Laundering can be instituted in order to attempt to hide the source of generation of a particular flow of income or to mask the process of the spending of monies. Furthermore, Money Laundering can be utilized in order to mislead investigations involved in the determination of the particular spending pattern or trend with regard to an individual or entity. While Money Laundering is not specific to commercial activity, it most commonly takes place within the scope of business activity.
Types of Money Laundering
The laundering of monies can take place for a variety of reasons. The following are the most common reasons and methods of Money Laundering:
A ‘dummy corporation’ can be established in order to misrepresent financial activity with regard to a business or commercial operation. Eponymously, a ‘dummy corporation’ maintains the façade of a legitimate business complete with reports of income, revenue, and spending in order to fabricate commercial activity. Subsequent to the establishment of this type of Money Laundering methodology, monies acquired by means which suspects wish to keep hidden can be filtered into the dummy corporation. This filtering simulates the circulation of monies. However, the monies in question are rarely ever spent, but rather circulated in order to illustrate legitimate financial activity.
Strategic banking activity in the form of deposits can be another method employed by individuals laundering monies. Large deposits submitted to financial institutions can be considered by industry standards to be signs of Money Laundering activity. Many money launderers attempt to substantiate the source of their income through both illegitimate and legitimate operations in order to avoid any allegations or convictions with regard to a Money Laundering charge.
Offshore Accounts are a means employed by many money launderers, which involves financial deposits of laundered monies into bank accounts existing in other countries or nations. As a result, the financial activity is typically impervious to American legislation unless an expressed agreement or investigative permission has been granted to law enforcement agencies existing within the United States. 
Investment Money Laundering is a type of fraudulent endeavor in which an individual or entity may choose to invest in a business or commercial endeavor whose production, revenue, or solvency is difficult to trace. This can occur as a result of a lack of documentation, case-by-case sales, or an absence of uniform commercial activity.
Arrest Process for Money Laundering
Individuals who have been served documentation in the form of an arrest warrant displaying a Money Laundering charge, or have already been arrested by law enforcement agents, are encouraged to cooperate with the arresting officers regardless of personal belief with regard to the charges. Individuals under arrest will be given the opportunity to consult with legal specialists subsequent to the arrest process. Resisting or fleeing from a Money Laundering arrest can result in harm, injury, and additional penalties. Upon arrest, an individual should be made aware of the following in order to prevent any further complication(s):
Habeas Corpus
Due Process
The Presumption of Innocence.
Upon the arrest for a Money Laundering charge, this is the standard arrest protocol that must be upheld by any and all arresting officers. Miranda Rights include the Fifth Amendment, which states that an individual retains the right to remain silent in order to avoid incriminating themselves. This is also known as ‘pleading the Fifth’. In addition, Miranda Rights also guarantee the following rights with regard to an arrest:
The right to remain silent
The right for any words spoken during the arrest to be admissible during a trial
The right to consult with an attorney regardless of financial stature
The acknowledgement that the individual arrested for the Money Laundering charge understands the aforementioned rights.
 
The Preparation of a Money Laundering Defense
Individuals are encouraged to consult with attorneys specializing in criminal law and, if possible, those who focus on Money Laundering legality, financial law, business law, and defense. In the construction of a defense, the individual may be asked to provide the nature of the Money Laundering in question, any included threats, the biographical information with regard to any and all victims, any previous arrests and/or convictions, evidence and witness testimony, full account of the details surrounding the event in question, and the arrangement for bail or bond.