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Drug Scheduling Schedule III

Drug Scheduling Schedule III

The controlled substances found in Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act are considered to be less dangerous than those in Schedule II of the drug laws according to their classification. Drug laws provide that Schedule III controlled substances must meet the following criteria: 
 
 
The drug or substance has a potential for abuse and/or addiction less than those found in Schedule II; 
 
 
The drug or substance has proven to have applications for medical treatments or applications;
 
 
Abuse of the drug or substance may lead to moderate to low physical dependence or moderate to high psychological dependence.  
 
 
Drug laws state that Schedule III controlled substances are strictly regulated under drug laws and are only legally available by prescription. All controlled substances in Schedule III are considered to be prescription drugs as stated by drug laws such as the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 
 
 
Schedule III controlled substances may be dispensed only by written prescription as given by a medical practitioner. Oral prescriptions are also allowed, as long as they abide by the drug laws provided by the Controlled Substances Act. 
 
 
Schedule III prescriptions have a lifetime of six months after the original date of dispensation. It may not be refilled after that time span unless a new prescription is given.  Also, the prescription may not be filled more than five times after the original date of dispensation. The prescription must be renewed in order to refill more than the allowed five times.
 
 
Some of the drug law-based Schedule III controlled substances are:
 
 
         Anabolic steroids, including prohormones
 
 
         Bartbiturates that have immediate-acting qualities
 
 
         Ketamine
 
 
         Xyrem
 
 
         Vicodin
 
 
         Marinol
 
 
Most of these drugs are used in the medical field, but have also been abused and used on the recreational level. Ketamine is often used as a veterinary and pediatric anesthetic and was created as a mild substitute for PCP. Xyrem is often prescribed to treat narcolepsy and is a type of preparation of GHB, which is found in Schedule I. Marinol is a synthetically derived version of Tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, commonly prescribed for nausea and vomiting as a result of chemotherapy.  AIDS patients may also be prescribed Marinol in order to treat appetite loss. THC is a main component of marijuana or cannabis, which is found in Schedule I.
 
 
Anabolic steroids and prohormones are also in Schedule III, and have been the recent topic of debate in the sports world, particularly baseball. Many athletes were brought to trial to testify about their alleged use of anabolic steroids and other compounds such as prohormones while active members of the MLB. Steroids have become a problem in terms of their ability to enhance performance in athletic events or sports and have been under scrutiny regarding their illegal use in certain sports.
 
 
Anabolic steroids have been used in the medical field to aid in certain treatments, but their abuse and/or illegal use is most notorious and known. Even though they have legitimate medical use, anabolic steroids and prohormones are still considered controlled substances and are placed in Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act.

Purpose of Drug Scheduling

Purpose of Drug Scheduling

Drug abuse and addiction has always been a growing concern in the United States.  Though drugs have always been present in some way, shape, or form, they have become infused with much of the culture and society that it is constantly overlooked.  Predominantly, in terming the word “drugs,” the immediate connotation is that of an illegal substance that alters normal human behavior and has an overall negative stigma.  However, the fact remains that all drugs–whether illegal or with medical intentions and applications–must have a system for control and regulation. 
The common understanding is that anything in excess is bad and that everything should be done in moderation surely applies to all drugs.  Though throughout the world certain drugs and substances have been used in cultural applications and social circles, the United States developed its own through its own young history.  Notably are the times of Prohibition, when alcohol was outlawed and subsequently led to the birth and rise of organized crime, and the psychedelic 1960s which saw the liberal use of drugs such as marijuana and LSD among others.  
The 1960s was an era that had impacts on cultural movements today.  It saw the Civil Rights Movement get underway, a flourishing peace-loving and nature-seeking hippies, a musical revolution, the prominent and notorious rise of motorcycle gangs, and moments of great unrest such as the Vietnam War and the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, and Martin Luther King, Jr. Though this time in American history saw many changes in culture and society, it will always be known as the drug-using age of the hippie.  
It is no secret that the prominent use of certain drugs and substances became extremely popular as a culture movement and societal tool for interaction.  However, this also gave the notion behind the need for controlling such substances.  It was in 1969 that President Richard Nixon signed into law the Controlled Substances Act.  This new legislature would soon become the general guidelines and official Federal drug policy of the United States.  
The CSA would regulate and restrict the manufacture, possession, use, and distribution of certain drugs and substances by means of a classification system.  Not only were drugs separated and categorized using the overall effects of drugs, but they would also be regimented according the propensity and possibility of the development of addiction, abuse, and dependence on these chemicals and drugs.
The CSA gave birth to Drug Scheduling, which was the system implemented by the CSA to enact its purpose of regulating and restricting certain types of substances and drugs, which would now become known as controlled substances. 
The main purpose behind drug scheduling is simply to assign the certain characteristics of drugs and substances levels in terms of the propensity for abuse and addiction.  Drugs are categorized in to specific Schedules depending on factors such as:
    Potential for abuse
 
      Considering also:
 
         History
         Magnitude
         Duration
         Significance
    Risk to public health
 
    Potential of physical and/or psychological harm
The drugs and substances are then placed into one of the five Schedules according to viability for abuse and dependence and potential medical applications, if any.  The drugs found listed under Schedule I have a very high potential for abuse and addiction and have no medical use.  Those listed in Schedule II have less potential for addiction but have proven to have medical applications.  Each subsequent Schedule proceeding after the first decrease in terms of potential addiction and abuse factors and all have medical use. 
Those controlled substances found in Schedule I are considered the most addictive and the most potentially hazardous because they have no medical applications.  It can be deemed that the controlled substances in the first Schedule are those that are to be considered highly illegal or illicit because of the lack of medical purpose.  Drug Scheduling not only helps identify the potential dangers of a particular drug or controlled substance, but it also requires that certain steps be considered in the ordering, dispensing, and prescription of those controlled substances with medical applications. 
The CSA also places certain guidelines to be adhered to by medical professionals in order to keep a record of all legal transactions involving controlled substances.  This not only allows for the Government to keep a vigilant eye on controlled substances, but also provides the groundwork for the study and research of the drugs regarding not only its medical applications, but how effective the system is in limiting and controlling the availability of drugs, particularly those deemed illegal for use, consumption, or possession and punishable by law.

Drug Scheduling Role of the DEA

Drug Scheduling Role of the DEA

The DEA, or Drug Enforcement Administration, was formally established on July 1, 1973. The purpose behind the creation of the DEA was to provide for a Federal agency designed to enforce the Federal drug laws and coordinate the Government’s drug control and regulation policies and actions. The DEA would also become one of the main agencies involved in the classification of drugs and controlled substances under the Control Substances Act along with the Food and Drug Administration.  Both agencies would be involved in the research and studies involved in appropriately placing controlled substances in the Drug Scheduling system.
The Drug Enforcement Administration is also responsible for authorizing access to drugs and controlled substances found in all of the drug schedules to medical professionals, manufacturers, and researchers.  Drug companies must be authorized and registered with the DEA to manufacture, distribute, and research controlled substances.  Doctors and physicians are required to be registered if they plan on prescribing and dispensing any controlled substance that is categorized in the drug schedules.
On the law enforcement and legal aspect of the DEA, the agency is responsible for collecting, analyzing, and applying intelligence to all drug-related issues. In its perpetual war against drugs, the DEA plays a critical and integral role in providing the necessary intelligence to operations, investigations, prosecutions, and strategic planning to effectively curtail the trafficking, use, possession, and distribution of controlled substances and illegal drugs. The DEA is also responsible in providing crucial research and intelligence in order to provide for appropriate drug laws and policies, as well as proper classification of drugs and controlled substances.
Currently, the Drug Enforcement Administration is dealing with the shift in the abuse of controlled substances that have medical usage and are currently legal, as opposed to illicit drugs such as marijuana, heroin, and cocaine.  Though the trafficking, selling, distributing, and usage of illegal drugs is still a primary focus, the Drug Enforcement Administration is now dealing with the abuse of controlled substances, particularly those with a background in medicine usage and its spreading abuse and addiction.
People are finding new ways and legal loopholes that allow the perfect avenue to come across Drug Enforcement Administration controlled substances such as hydrocodone, oxycodone, alprazolam, and methadone.  Though all have approved and proper medical usage and applications, these types of substances are becoming predominantly abused and rates of usage and addiction are disproportionate to the amount of people that are legally prescribed the medicine and using it in the appropriate medical scope. This trend is one that has been proven to rise since the turn of the century, indicating that the medicines and substances are being used in other ways than intended. 
Prescriptions of hydrocodone dispensed in 2000 were about 100 million, and by the end of 2008, the number had increased to about 140 million. The problem of abuse of legally allowed controlled substances has forced the DEA to implement a diversion control system. Diversion is the term used to describe the use of legally-manufactured controlled substances being used for any other reason then their intended purpose. The system is in place to appropriately control the implications involving controlled substance diversion, while still allowing for their intended medical purposes to make them available to those that legitimately use and need the drugs or substances for health issues.

Drug Scheduling Schedule I

Drug Scheduling Schedule I

The controlled substances listed under Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act are those that are considered most dangerous and hazardous, for they have proven to be extremely prone to addiction and/or abuse. Furthermore, at the current time, no viable or quantifiable medical use has been evident or proven of these types of controlled substances. 
Possession of drugs such as these is a very serious matter. The criteria that constitute a controlled substance to be placed under Schedule I are:
 
 
The substance has a high potential for abuse and/or addiction;
 
 
The substance has not been proven to have any accepted medical use in the United States;
 
 
There is no provision for accepted safe use of the substance under medical supervision.
 
 
The controlled substances in Schedule I are not only extremely restricted, but most are considered illegal to be consumed, produced, possessed, sold, or bought by regular civilians. Only those factions appropriately registered and recognized by the Drug Enforcement Administration can handle Schedule I controlled substances. Such grants for possession of drugs are only given to manufacturers, researchers, and distributors for the sole purpose of research and study. Thus, possession of drugs such as these can cause great trouble for individuals.
 
 
Because Schedule I controlled substances are so highly regulated and restricted, the legal penalties and consequences for anyone unauthorized by the DEA to handle such drugs or substances are quite extreme.  Controlled substances found in Schedule are, but not limited to: Marijuana (Cannabis), Heroin, MDMA, Psilocybin, GHB, LSD, Peyote, Mescaline, and Quaalude.
 
 
The legal ramifications of possession of drugs, use, transfer, trafficking, and purchase and sale of Schedule I substances are very stringent.  For example, there are specific sentences to particular types of Schedule I controlled substances. Marijuana trafficking violations can vary depending on the amount being illegally transferred or transported, and if any prior offenses exist. 
 
 
A trafficking or possession of drugs charge of a first offense of more than 10kgs of hashish, or a mixture weighing 50 to 99kgs will lead to up to 20 years in prison and up to a one million dollar fine for an individual, five million for more than one individual.  This provision concerning drug possession charges also includes more than one kilogram of hashish oil and/or 50 to 99 plants.  If a serious injury or death is involved in the drug possession charge, the prison sentence is at least 20 years, but not more than life.
 
 
A second offense of possession of drugs will carry a minimum 30 year sentence, $2 million dollar fine for an individual, $10 million for more than one.  If death or serious injury occurs, a mandatory life sentence is dispensed to the person charged of this illegal drug possession or trafficking. 
 
 
For Heroin, drug possession of 100 to 999 grams of a mixture or impure Heroin, the first offense carries no less than five years imprisonment, but no more than forty. A maximum fine of $2 million dollars for an individual, $5 million if more than one individual is involved may also be added. If death or serious injury occurs, a minimum of 20 years is in order, but not exceeding a life sentence.
 
 
The illegal drug possession or trafficking of LSD is the same if one to nine grams of the substance is found. The prison sentences and fines increase dramatically with subsequent offenses and if the quantity exceeds a certain amount.  The previous amounts are listed as the minimum in terms of violations. 
 
 
It is evident that the illegal drug possession or trafficking of Schedule I controlled substances is not taken lightly and severe consequences are imposed against those that do not obey the provisions as written in the Controlled Substance Act.

Drug SchedulingSchedule II

Drug SchedulingSchedule II

The controlled substances that are considered under the Schedule II drug policy parameters as set out by the Drug Enforcement Agency can be regarded just as dangerous as those found in Schedule I. The only difference that exists is that the controlled substances in Schedule II have accepted medical use and are used legally under those provisions, while the substances placed in Schedule I have no applications on the medical level.
 
 
The controlled substances in Schedule II of the Drug Enforcement Agency are just as addictive as those in Schedule I, but their applications in the medical realm allow them to be placed under the Schedule II drug policy provision. Controlled substances in Schedule II meet the following criteria:
 
 
The controlled substance has a high potential for abuse and/or addiction;
 
 
The drug or substance has proven evidence of being viable for use in medical treatment in the United States;
 
 
The abuse of the substance or drug can lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
 
 
All the controlled substances under the Schedule II drug policy of the Drug Enforcement Agency and regulations have strict guidelines and restrictions regarding their availability to potential users. The controlled substances or medications are only legally available under prescription by a medical practitioner or pharmacist.
 
 
 A written prescription is necessary to obtain any of the substances under Schedule II of the Drug Enforcement Agency, unless a specific and unusual emergency deems it necessary. The prescriptions are dispensed for a one-time use purpose and cannot be refilled. The controlled substance must be prescribed every time it is to be used, and a written prescription is necessary to acquire the drug or substance. 
 
 
The controlled substances in Schedule II can vary in terms of their nature as well as their potency.  Certain arguments have been presented regarding the classification of particular drugs or substances found in Schedule II because their potency and potential for abuse and/or addiction is as high as those in Schedule I drug policy. Because of their accepted use in the medical field they are placed in Schedule II, but some of the controlled substances have proven to be as dangerous as those in Schedule I. Controlled substances found under Schedule II provisions include:
 
 
         Cocaine
 
 
         Ritalin
 
 
         Concerta
 
 
         Opium
 
 
         Methadone
 
 
         Oxycodone (Percocet, OxyContin, and Percodan)
 
 
         Morphine
 
 
         Adderall
 
 
         Seconal
 
 
         PCP
 
 
         Short-acting barbiturates
 
 
         Fentanyl
 
 
Some of these controlled substances are used in the medical field with certain treatments and prove to be extremely effective, and thus, may be given some special dispensation for use by the Drug Enforcement Agency. Because some of these drugs or substances are so effective, their potential for abuse is also very high and are regulated by Federal drug policy. Drugs like methadone are used for heroin addiction treatments, but because of the nature of the drug, users have been found to become addicted to methadone while seeking treatment for heroin addiction.
 
 
Many of the controlled substances in Schedule II are used for pain treatments, such as morphine, codeine, and Oxycodone. Some of these drugs are prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder and ADHD, such as Ritalin, Concerta, and Adderall. However, even though some of these drugs or substances have effective medical applications, their potential for abuse and/or addiction is extremely high, making them dangerous without medical supervision or approval.
 
 
Schedule II substances are as dangerous as those in Schedule I, but because of their medical use they are legally controlled and allowed under medical supervision or prescription. The Drug Enforcement Agency is given the difficult and complex task of regulating and controlling these drugs and substances. As the potential for addiction and dependence shifts to prescription drugs, the Drug Enforcement Agency must also shift its focus of concentrating more on the abuse of legal and prescribed medications, and not just illicit or illegal drugs.

The Drug Scheduling Controlled Substances Act

The Drug Scheduling Controlled Substances Act

The Controlled Substances Act was passed into law by Congress as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. The overall purpose behind the new legislation enacted under President Richard Nixon was to allow a provision and a set of guidelines for the United States Government to battle the abuse of drugs and other chemical and substances.  The Controlled Substances Act, or CSA, became an amalgamation of laws and regulations set to be implemented on the manufacture, distribution, use, and production of drugs or certain substances. 
 
 
The Controlled Substances Act allowed for a collection or list of these drugs and chemicals which were to be placed into certain categories.  These would be known as controlled substances and were divided into five general groups. These five categories would serve in helping to identify the nature of the controlled substance by using its effects as the qualifying factor. The Controlled Substances Act would then create a system that would classify each of these controlled substances in terms of Drug Schedules, which would serve as the basis or guideline in determining the restrictions or regulations regarding that particular drug or chemical. 
 
 
The factors that were considered in placing the controlled substances into their respective schedules are as follows:
 
 
Active or relative potential for abuse or addiction.
 
 
Scientific evidence of drug or substance's effects.
 
 
Current scientific knowledge of the drug or substance; this provision pertains to all general knowledge as opposed to just effects.
 
 
History and pattern of abuse; considers socioeconomic factors for possible involvement in abuse or addiction.
 
 
Scope, duration, and significance of abuse or addiction.
 

How Was Drug Scheduling Created?

How Was Drug Scheduling Created?

Drug scheduling was created in an effort to provide a basis or guidelines for drug laws, by categorizing certain drugs and controlled substances according to their potential harm in terms of addiction and abuse.  The concept was initially introduced in 1970, with the first of the very significant drug laws of modern times, the Controlled Substances Act.  The passage of this drug law made it viable for it to become the official and Federal legislation governing drug laws for the United States. 
 
 
The nature of scheduling drugs in precluding the various qualifications to be included in each of the sections of the drug law would undoubtedly require intensive research and study. The Drug Enforcement Administration and the Food and Drug Administration would, according to this drug law, become the two Federal Government agencies that would be assigned in determining which substances were to be included in the controlled substance lists and how they would be classified into the appropriate drug schedule. Initially, it was Congress that created the first drug schedule classification and list. 
 
 
The creation of drug scheduling does not necessarily provide for any formal legal implications, however, it does serve as a guide to provide for the consideration of rendering certain drugs or controlled substances as illegal.  The Drug Schedule is divided in to five sections, each providing for a comprehensive list of drugs and chemicals that are considered to meet the guidelines of a particular schedule. 
 
 
One of the main components used for consideration while placing substances in to their respective schedules in drug laws is the possibility of addiction of abuse.  If there is no viability for a substance to be abused, it cannot be considered to be controlled. There is no formal definition of what the "potential for abuse" is in the legislation of the CSA. However, there are four general guidelines that are considered:
 
 
 
1) Prior evidence exists that the drug or substance is being used in sufficient amounts to create health or safety hazard to him/herself or the community.
 
 
2) There is significant diversion of the drug or substance from legitimate drug sources
 
 
3) The drug or substance is being used under an individual's own initiative or impulse, and not under the care or advice of medical practitioner.
 
 
4) A new drug that has relation or has as a precursor another drug already included on the list.  If the new drug is similar in its chemical make-up or effects, it can be assumed that it will have a similar effect, and thus, consideration to be included in the list is a logical and responsible decision.
 
 
Determining the addiction or abuse potential is crucial to labeling and placing a particular controlled substance in a certain schedule.  Drug laws have used the determining factors of the schedules as a way to impose certain restrictions and penalties depending on the nature of the controlled substance.  The CSA drug laws, particularly scheduling, have been debated in regards to the placement of certain controlled substances or drugs into more restrictive tiers in the schedules themselves. 
 
 
A key example is heroin, found under the provisions of Schedule I, while morphine and opium are found in Schedule II.  The paradox that exists is that heroin is a direct derivative of opium, and yet is considered to be more addictive and abused than opium.  The argument stands at labeling heroin as twice as potent than morphine, but yet still considered illegal. Morphine is a legal controlled substance and used widely in medical practices for sedation purposes. 
 
 
Even though heroin is an illicit drug, morphine has been proven to be extremely addictive and has a propensity to be abused.  The only significant difference being that heroin has not been found to be of medical use or value, while morphine is accepted in the medical realm as a sedative. 
 
 
Another example is that tobacco and alcohol are excluded from all schedules and the exemption has been a subject of controversy.  Alcohol and tobacco are not only legal substances, but they are widely used throughout the world. Alcohol and tobacco have both been proven to be liable to addiction and abuse–nicotine being the key chemical in tobacco products and arguably more addictive than other illegal controlled substances such as cocaine and heroin. 
 
 
The health hazards of alcohol and tobacco products are well-documented and both have the capability of rendering serious side effects of which death is ultimately a factor. The exclusion of these two substances has been an issue of controversy and still being debated today. It is important to note that caffeine, another widely used substance, is also excluded.  Neither of these three substances are subject to any particular drug laws, though alcohol and tobacco are regulated in terms of age requirements for their purchase.

A Brief Overview of Drug Scheduling

A Brief Overview of Drug Scheduling

Purpose
 
 
The abuse and addiction to drugs and substances has always been a concern for the United States Government. The Controlled Substances Act is an attempt to curtail the use and abuse of illicit drugs and substances, and the categorization of each is a means to control and regulate how the drugs and substances are dispensed and used. The inclusion of certain drugs or substances into Schedules not only lists those that are considered illegal, but also helps anyone to view each substance in terms of their potential dangers.
 
 
The purpose of drug scheduling is to outline and restrict certain drugs and substances according to their viable and potential dangers to abuse and/or addiction. Furthermore, it also provides for a basic guideline in terms of law, listing drugs in accordance to their dangers, but also in terms of their legal or illegal use. Those in Schedule I are not only the most dangerous, but are also those drugs or substances that have no medical applications and their use is illicit.
 
 
Creation
 
 
Drug Scheduling was created as an attempt to provide for basic restrictions and regulations of certain drugs and substances. Drug scheduling would essentially become the basic formula for what is now considered as the United States' drug law enforcement.
 
 
The passage of the Controlled Substance Act into legislation would help provide for the country's drug laws and regulations, but also as a categorized system which would outline the potential dangers and hazards for particular drugs and substances. Through drug scheduling, an individual may be able to not only know what controlled substances are and how they are regulated, but also at first glance understand the potential dangers to addiction and abuse. The systemic categories provide for the understanding that those listed in Schedule I are not only considered illegal, but also the most hazardous for use. At a simple glance, one can understand the potential risks of using the drugs, both on the health hazards as well as the legal ramifications and consequences.
 
 
Role of the DEA
 
 
The Drug Enforcement Administration would become the Federal Government's official branch with the complex task of regulating and enforcing the country's drug laws and legislation. The DEA would also be responsible in the classification and categorization of controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act, as well as enforcing the regulations and standards provided by written legislation and law. Not only does the DEA research and study the risks and inherent nature of drugs and substances, but also enforces the drug laws on the field, by actively pursuing and detaining those who infringe or break the Federal drug laws.
 
 
In more recent times, the DEA has faced the difficult task of regulating and controlling the abuse of medical or prescribed drugs and substances. Drug and controlled substance abusers have shifted the typical expectations of being hooked on illicit drugs to forming a dependence on substances used legally in the medical field. The DEA is investigating how certain prescribed medicines have the ability to form addictions and dependence and instituting more restrictive and controlling policies as an effort to stop and reduce the abuse of prescription drugs or substances.
 
 
Controlled Substances Act
 
 
The Controlled Substances Act was passed into legislation in 1970 under the presidency of Richard Nixon. The new laws were an immediate response to the seemingly overwhelming recreational drug use and abuse of the era. The CSA would essentially become the United States drug policy and laws, by separating drugs and substances into categories depending on their addiction and/or dependence viability and their medical applications, if any. The Controlled Substances Act would not only provide for a list of dangerous and illicit substances, but also legally prescribed medications and substances that may prove to be hazardous and dangerous if abused or used for other reasons than their medical intentions.
 
 
The Drug Enforcement Agency would be established as a result of the Controlled Substances Act in order to have a Federal branch and organization to implement and enforce the new laws and legislation. The CSA still remains as the central factor behind the country's drug laws and is now being used to implement stricter policies regarding prescription drugs and substances due to their current abuse and dependency factors.
 
 
Schedule I
 
 
The Controlled Substances Act provides for a system of classification for controlled substances according to the basic factors of potential for abuse and/or dependency and the drug or substance's applications in the medical field, if any, are found. The substances in Schedule I prove to be the most dangerous or hazardous in terms of possible addiction or dependence. Generally speaking, these controlled substances are the ones that are, in most part, illegal for use or possession.
 
 
Schedule I controlled substances prove to be of no accepted medical use or are extremely limited in terms of legal availability. The sentences deriving out of violation of drug laws in terms of possession or trafficking of Schedule I controlled substances are considered as the most severe. Life imprisonment and extremely high fines can be imposed by the court under certain circumstances. Controlled substances under Schedule I include Marijuana (Cannabis), Heroin, MDMA, Psilocybin, Mescaline, LSD, and GHB.
 
 
Schedule II
 
 
Controlled substances under Schedule II provisions of the Controlled Substances Act can prove to be as dangerous as those found in Schedule I. The main reason for their classification under Schedule II is that they have some sort of medical application or treatment, whereas those in Schedule I do not. However, a controlled substance still has the potential for abuse and/or addiction as those found under Schedule I. These drugs or substances are also strictly regulated and available only by medical prescription when used as directed and in accordance to law.
 
 
Certain types of Schedule II drugs or substances will require prescriptions by a medical practitioner and cannot be refilled. A new prescription is required for every subsequent time that the medication or substance is dispensed. Some of the drugs or substances included under Schedule II provisions include Cocaine, Opium, Methadone, Oxycodone, Morphine, Fentanyl, PCP, Adderall, and Codeine.
 
 
Schedule III
 
 
Schedule III controlled substances are slightly less restricted and regulated than those in Schedules I and II.  In general, these controlled substances are applied in the medical field quite extensively and are proven to be effective when used under medical care and supervision. These drugs and substances are only legally available by prescription. Schedule III drugs and substances are placed under this provision because they have a current and accepted medical use or treatment and their potential for abuse and/or addiction are less than those substances found in Schedules I and II.
 
 
Drugs included in this schedule include Anabolic steroids, Ketamine, Xyrem, Marinol, and certain compounds containing Hydrocodone and/or Codeine. Anabolic steroids have been of recent focus due to their illegal use in professional sports, particularly baseball, in which recent news has reported several athletes supposedly employed the use of anabolic steroids to enhance their performance in the sport.
 
 
Schedule IV
 
 
Controlled substances found under Schedule IV are similarly regulated and controlled as those found in Schedule III. These drugs are considered to be less addictive or potentially abused than those in Schedule III and all have proven to be as accepted for medical use or treatment in the United States. These drugs or substances are only available with a prescription, which can only be refilled up to five times within a six month period. Substances found in Schedule IV include Xanax, Valium, Klonopin, Ambien, phenobarbital, and Flunitrazepam or Rophynol.
 
 
Rophynol, or "roofies," have been of particular concern to the DEA because of its infamous and notorious use as a "date rape drug," used in cases of sexual assault and rape. Though the drug is not medically used in the United States, it is still considered illegal and its availability is the subject of focus of the DEA in terms of limiting or completely curtailing the illegal possession and trafficking of the drug.